LEX LATA, LEX FERENDA
The law as it is, the law as it should be
A commentary on International and Comparative Law and Global Affairs by Washington University School of Law Professors, Alumni, and Students
Leila Nadya Sadat is the Henry H. Oberschelp Professor of Law and Israel Treiman Faculty Fellow at Washington University School of Law and Director of the Whitney R. Harris World Law Institute. She currently serves as Special Adviser on Crimes Against Humanity to the ICC Prosecutor and served as the Alexis de Tocqueville Distinguished Fulbright Chair at the University of Cergy-Pontoise in Paris, France in Spring 2011. Sadat is an internationally recognized authority and prolific scholar. She is the author of the award-winning The International Criminal Court and the Transformation of International Law: Justice for the New Millennium (Transnational, 2002) and Forging a Convention for Crimes Against Humanity (Leila Nadya Sadat, ed., Cambridge 2011). Her most recent articles include: Crimes Against Humanity in the Modern Age, A Rawlsian Approach to International Criminal Justice; On the Shores of Lake Victoria: Africa and the International Criminal Court; Understanding the Complexities of International Criminal Tribunal Jurisdiction; and The Nuremberg Paradox. Sadat was a delegate to the 1998 Rome Diplomatic Conference and the 2010 ICC Review Conference in Kampala, Uganda. She has held leadership positions in many organizations and is a member of the American Law Institute.
Isaac Amon, JD ’15/LLM in Negotiation Dispute Resolution ’15, graduated summa cum laude from Washington University in St. Louis with a degree in History. His senior thesis – awarded Highest Honors by the Department of History – focused upon the establishment of the Spanish Inquisition, and the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492. During the summer of 2014, he interned at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), and in December 2014, served as a delegate to the Thirteenth Assembly of States Parties to the International Criminal Court. He has taken classes at Utrecht University, the Sorbonne and Hebrew University. His research interests include International Criminal Law, Dispute Resolution, and the intersection of History and Law.
Lola Awobokun, JD ’19, is originally from Nigeria and she relocated to Houston, Texas when she was 14 years. She is a graduate of Texas A&M University, College Station where she majored in Sociology and received a business administration minor. At Washington University School of Law, she is currently a team member of the Philip C. Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition, the President of International Law Society, and a Staff Editor on the Global Studies Law Review Journal. During the summer of 2018, she was a litigation summer associate at Baker McKenzie’s Houston office and she will return to Baker McKenzie in summer 2019. Her research areas include public international law; human rights, and international courts and tribunals. She recently served as a Research Assistant for the Harris Institute on its work supporting the International Criminal Court’s Legal Database.
Abadir Barre, JD ’16/LLM in Negotiation Dispute Resolution ’16, graduated from the University of California at Berkeley with bachelor’s degrees in Political Science and Rhetoric. After graduation, Abadir went to Kenya and worked on peace and conflict resolution within the Somali community. In the summer of 2014, he interned at the Puntland Legal Aid Center in Puntland, Somalia. In the summer of 2015, he will be interning with the International Development Law Organization’s Somalia Department. Abadir intends to do Rule of Law reform in Somalia after earning his JD and LLM degrees.
Fizza Batool, JD ’17, is the current Harris Institute Fellow. She graduated magna cum laude from Saint Louis University completing a double major in Criminal Justice and Legal Studies. During the summer of 2016, she traveled to The Hague, Netherlands as the Dagen-Legomsky Hague Fellow to study public international law at The Hague Academy. She is also the Executive Articles Editor of the Global Studies Law Review, which is publishing her Student Note entitled Exile and Election: The Case for Barring Exiled Leaders from Contesting in National Elections. Her research interests include international and domestic criminal law, international human rights law, and international state arbitration.
Marla Borkson, JD ’17, attended the University of Florida with degrees in Political Science, Geography and certificates in Arabic and Chinese languages. After graduation, Marla moved to Chengdu, China where she lived for multiple years studying and working with Mandarin and regional sub-dialects of Chinese. Marla also lived in Kathmandu, Nepal where she worked with International NGOs in the education sector. Marla has extensively traveled the South Asian region and enjoys learning the local languages and dialects.
Emily Brewster, JD ’19, grew up in the Chicagoland area. She graduated with a degree in Anthropology from Boston University in 2014. In college, she was an editor of the BU Pre-Law Review and member of the Rugby and Fencing Teams. Emily has interned for legal organizations in Australia, the United Kingdom, and Boston. She has completed research on the human rights issues of the South Pacific nations for the International Commission of Jurists, Australia, and she has studied the British Legal System and British Children’s Rights Law. Her research interests include international environmental law, antitrust, and international human rights.
Suhao Chen, is currently a Visiting Researcher at Washington University School of Law until August 2017. Suhao is a Ph.D candidate in law at Southwest University of Political Science and Law (Chongqing, China) and the Assistant to the Dean of the Center of Procedural Law and Judicial Reform. His research interests include criminal procedure, evidence law and international human rights law. Suhao’s Ph.D project, which is funded by the China Scholarship Council and Chongqing Education Commission, is on the pre-trial rights of detainees to communicate with the outside world. His project will examine the influence of international standards and norms on domestic jurisdictions and address legal issues arising in the detention practices of international criminal justice systems and their potential domestic impact.
Evelyn Chuang, JD ’13, was the 2013–2014 Harris Institute Fellow. She received her BS in Human Development from Cornell University and graduated cum laude from Washington University School of Law. She previously interned for Legal Resources Centre in Ghana, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in Tanzania, and EarthRights International in Thailand. As a public defender, she practiced law in Missouri (June 2014 – June 2015) and Washington (December 2015 – May 2017). She is currently working in Suva, Fiji, as the Academic Development Coordinator for the JDP School of Law at the University of Fiji.
Mattia Cutolo, LLM ’17 in Negotiation Dispute Resolution, has a JD from the University of Trento in Italy. At WashU Law, he was awarded the “LLM Excellence in Negotiation and Dispute Resolution Award.” He also worked as a Research Assistant to Professor Sadat in European Union and International Law. He has researched and written about international civil rights and politics, and is particularly interested in political and economic interaction between the United States and the European Union. His other research interests include international business transactions and the effects of globalization on economic and legal systems around the world.
Dylan Davis, JD ’20, graduated from Bard College Berlin in Germany with a concentration in Political Theory and Philosophy. During the summer of 2018 he interned at the Roma Tre Immigration Law Clinic at Rome Tre University in Rome, Italy as part of the Global Public Interest Fellowship. His research interests include International Human Rights Law and Critical Legal Theory.
Megan Ferguson, JD ’20, graduated from Seton Hall University with a degree in Diplomacy and International Relations, and Philosophy, and minored in Asian Studies. Megan’s work as a Fulbright English Teaching Assistant in Kinmen, Taiwan after graduation sparked her passion for understanding how individuals may shape international policy, and her determination to bring community voices into international law and international law to communities. Last year, Megan interned with the Legal Aid Board of Durban, South Africa, and observed community lawyering in both an international and a criminal context. This summer, she intends to further this learning by interning with a domestic prosecutors’ office. Megan’s research interests include humanitarian law and international criminal law.
Léa Garriga-Lafabregue, LL.M. ’17 in U.S. Law, obtained an LL.B. from the University of Montpellier in France and a Master’s Degree in Business and Tax Law from the University of Cergy-Pontoise in Paris, France. At Washington University School of Law, she was a member of the International Law Society, facilitating cooperation between foreign students. She worked alongside the Whitney R. Harris World Law Institute to promote France and French Law, including being an assistant host for the French Conversation Table. She has researched and written about International Tax Law, transfer pricing regulations, and business transactions between the United States and the European Union. In February 2018, she is sitting for the New York Bar Exam and would like to work for an international law firm.
Jing Geng, JD ’11, was the 2012-13 Harris Institute Fellow. She is currently a PhD researcher at Católica Global School of Law in Lisbon, Portugal. In addition to earning her JD from Washington University, Jing also obtained an LL.M. in Public International Law, cum laude, from Utrecht University in 2012. From 2013-2015, she served as a judicial law clerk to the Honorable Camille R. McMullen of the Tennessee Court of Criminal Appeals. Jing’s research interests include international human rights, women’s rights, gender equality, human trafficking, and human migration.
Madaline George, JD ’14, was the 2014-2015 Harris Institute Fellow. She has served as a legal intern at Lawyers for Human Rights in Durban, South Africa and at the Migrant Immigrant Community Action (MICA) project in St. Louis. She previously worked at The Climate Project, a non-profit focused on raising public awareness on climate change throughout the United States and abroad. Madaline also advises a new non-profit organization for refugee and migrant rights in southern Africa and Germany, for whom she spent 6 weeks doing field work in sustainability, conflict resolution and human rights research in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Malawi.
Nicole Gougeon, JD ‘18/LLM in Negotiation and Dispute Resolution ’18, graduated Cum Laude from Grand Valley State University with a double Bachelors in International Business, and Marketing. During the summer of 2016 Nicole worked in Durban, South Africa at the ZA Legal Aid office, and in 2017 she traveled to Seoul, South Korea as the Dagen-Legomsky International Public Interest Fellow to work at the Korean Commercial Arbitration Board. Currently, Nicole is working on expanding the Mediation programs in the St. Louis District Courts for Pro Se parties. She will be travelling to Sydney, Australia in 2018 to work at the Australian Center for International Commercial Arbitration to further her work in Dispute Resolution.
Eleanor Gourley, JD ’16, served on the 2014-2015 Executive Board for the International Law Society as secretary and is the alumnae liaison for the Women’s Law Caucus. In the spring of 2015 she served as an intern at the International Criminal Court in the Hague. She also served as an Executive Articles Editor for Washington University Journal of Law and Policy.
Marianne Guéry, LL.M. ’18 in U.S. Law, graduated summa cum laude with her Master’s Degree in Anglo-American Business Law at the University Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris, France). She previously obtained her LL.B., magna cum laude, from the University of Angers (France), during which she also studied at the University of Greenwich (London, United Kingdom), and obtained a Master’s Degree in International Business Law at the Panthéon-Assas University (Paris, France). She is particularly interested in international business transactions, corporate law, and international alternative dispute resolution. She interned in business law firms in France and Cambodia and she is pursuing a career in international business law.
Mathias Holvoet is currently a Visiting Researcher at the Whitney R. Harris World Law Institute until the end of June 2016. Mathias is a PhD-Researcher in International Criminal Law at the Faculty of Law and Criminology of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium, affiliated with the Research Group Fundamental Rights and Constitutionalism (FRC). His PhD-project is one Work Package which is part of a broader research project funded by the Belgian Science Policy Office (BELSPO) entitled “The Global Challenge of Human Rights Integration: Towards a Users’ Perspective” (www.hrintegration.be). Mathias researches the various aspects and dimensions of the controversial and contested requirement of a ‘policy’ as an element of the definition of crimes against humanity. The provisional working title of his PhD is ‘The Policy Behind the Atrocity. An Inquiry into the Status and Substance of the ‘Policy Element’ under the Law of Crimes against Humanity’.
Jarrod Jolly, LLM in U.S. Law ’14, is currently an Associate to a Judge of the Supreme Court of Queensland. He has worked as a Senior Research Officer at the Australian Senate and on numerous projects for the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Jarrod holds a Bachelor of Laws (Hons) and Arts from the University of Queensland, Australia, and a Master of Laws from Washington University School of Law, United States. His principal research interests include trafficking in persons, smuggling of migrants, international criminal law and comparative constitutional law.
Imad Khan, JD ’11, is an associate at White & Case LLP in the Firm’s International Arbitration and Litigation Groups, where he represents clients in international treaty arbitrations, international commercial arbitrations and federal district court. He represents clients in investor-State disputes before the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) at the World Bank, as well as under the rules of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). Mr. Khan has also represented and advised clients in commercial arbitrations under the rules of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and the International Centre for Dispute Resolution (ICDR). Mr. Khan is also is an adjunct professor at Washington University School of Law.
JooRi Kim, JD ’19, was a senior editor of the Washington University Global Studies Law Review and a research assistant to Professor Leila Sadat and the Whitney R. Harris World Law Institute. She is interested in international public interest law and international alternative dispute resolution.
Anton Krayniy, JD ’19, graduated cum laude from Tulane University with a double major in International Relations and Russian Studies. He wrote his honors thesis on the effect of Russian self-perception on Russian foreign policy from the nineties to 2016. During the summer of 2017, he traveled to The Hague, Netherlands as the Dagen-Legomsky Hague Fellow to study public international law at The Hague Academy of International Law. He is currently the co-president of the International Law Society at Washington University School of Law. His research interests include international trade regulations, international human rights law, international state arbitration, and space exploration regulations.
Nicholas Lamparski, JD ’19, is a team member of the Philip C. Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition at Washington University School of Law. He graduated with honors from Michigan State University’s James Madison College completing a double major in Political Theory and Constitutional Democracy and Finance. During the summer of 2017, he was in the Student Honors Program at the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission’s Office of Credit Ratings in New York City. His research interests include sovereign debt, sovereign credit ratings, cross-border international transactions, and international commercial arbitration.
Donato Guido Loforese, LLM in U.S. Law ’15/Bachelor and Masters of Law joint degree at University of Trento ’16, participated at the Transnational Law Program to develop an in-depth understanding of comparative law topics between Common Law and Civil Law systems. He has worked both in Palestine and Trento, Italy as a reporter for human rights projects in the Middle-East with MAIA onlus and the Al Quds University. His research interests include Immigration Law, Islamic Law and Societies, War Crimes and Human Rights protections during armed conflict.
Rose Lyu, LL.M. ’18, earned her Bachelor’s Degree in law from Wuhan Institute of Technology, in Hubei, China. Before she enrolled in Washington University in St. Louis, she worked with one of the largest global immigration law firms, Fragomen, Del Rey, Bernsen & Loewy, LLP, where she provided legal advice, made customized relocation plans to corporate clients and their employees, advised clients to remain compliant with China’s immigration regulations and requirements, and assisted the Senior Account Manager with maintaining VIP accounts. She is a team member of the Philip C. Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition at Washington University School of Law. Her research interests include public international law, international litigation/arbitration, and international corporate compliance.
Bethel Mandefro, MA in International Affairs ’11, joined the Harris Institute in 2011 after completing her Master’s degree at Washington University. She manages the day-to-day operations of the Institute including logistics, communications, event management, budgeting, website maintenance, and more. Bethel earned her Bachelor of Science in International Business and Organizational Behavior from University of Missouri – St. Louis, with a minor in Spanish, and worked as an export logistics coordinator at BDP International in Philadelphia prior to returning to St. Louis to pursue her graduate studies. An avid traveler, she has visited various countries in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, and Central America, and also studied and worked abroad in Guadalajara, Mexico and Bilbao, Spain.
Douglas J. Pivnichny, JD ’13, is currently a masters candidate in international law at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (IHEID), Geneva. He has previously served as the Fellow at the Whitney R. Harris World Law Institute. He holds a J.D. from Washington University School of Law and a BA (Hons.) from the University of Oxford in Philosophy, Politics & Economics. His principal research interests include international arbitration, transnational financial regulation, and the relationship between international law and federalism. He is currently writing his masters dissertation, Treaty-Based Claims against Subdivisions of ICSID Contracting States.
Jim Ransdell, JD ’16, holds an East Asian Studies degree from Centre College, Kentucky. Before law school, he also studied in Japan at Yamaguchi Prefectural University and Kobe University’s School of International Cooperation Studies, where he interviewed international development experts as a Fulbright Research Fellow. He interned at the Legal Resources Centre in Accra, Ghana during the Summer of 2014. Jim speaks Japanese, and intermediate Chinese and German. His research interests include: Rule of Law, Development Economics, Humanitarian Law, and relations among developing countries.
Megan Reif, JD ’17, graduated with highest distinction from the University of Iowa with a Communication Studies major and minors in English and Spanish. During the summer of 2015, she traveled to Durban, South Africa as part of Washington University’s Global Public Interest Law Initiative. In Durban, she interned for the Legal Resources Centre, a constitutional impact litigation NGO. She has also interned for the Center for Children’s Law and Policy in Washington, D.C., and the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Eastern District of Missouri. Megan is the Media and Symposium Editor of Washington University’s Global Studies Law Review, and supervised its 16(3) Symposium Issue: Drafting a Convention on Crimes Against Humanity. Her research interests include public international law and international human rights law, as well as American constitutional law and civil rights.
Feyga Saksonov, J.D. ’20,, is a member of the Crimes Against Humanity Student Research Project at Washington University’s Harris World Law Institute, and served as a Student Ambassador during the 2018 ABILA International Law Weekend. She graduated in 2017 from Boston University with a degree in economics and math and spent the summer of 2017 working as a researcher and analyst at a tech company in Boston. Her research interests include immigration and refugee law, data privacy and security, tech regulation, and human rights law.
Joshua Sills, JD ’16, spent his final semester at Washington University School of Law as a Foreign Law Clerk at the Supreme Court of Israel in Jerusalem. Josh is originally from New York City and returned there after graduation.
Tamara L. Slater, JD ’15, was the 2015-2016 Harris Institute Fellow. She earned her bachelor’s degree from the University of Rochester in May 2010, completing a double major in political science and religion, and her law degree from Washington University School of Law in May 2015. During law school, Tamara explored the intersection of international, environmental, and human rights law. She was also Managing Editor of the Global Studies Law Review, which published her Student Note entitled Investor-State Arbitration and Global Environmental Protection. Tamara has attended two UN Framework Convention on Climate Change conferences, COP 20 in Lima, Peru and ADP 2-11 in Bonn, Germany. Prior to law school, she worked at the International Center for Religion and Diplomacy, a Washington D.C.-based non-governmental organization.
Kristin Smith, JD ’14, was the 2016-2017 Harris Institute Fellow. She earned her Bachelor’s degree from the University of Notre Dame in 2011, completing a double major in American Studies and Studio Art. During law school, Kristin worked on human trafficking and rule of law issues at the Legal Resources Centre in Accra, Ghana, clerked at the Portland Immigration Court, and worked on international criminal justice issues for the American Bar Association’s International Criminal Court Project. She was a Primary Editor on the Washington University Journal of Law and Policy and a member of the Niagara International Moot Court Team. Before joining the Harris Institute, Kristin was an intern at the U.S. Department of State and worked as a legislative analyst and prosecutor on the state level in Oregon. Her research interests include foreign policy and human rights protection, the intersection of international and federal law, and the role of public opinion in the policymaking process.
Nicole Smith, JD ’19, graduated magna cum laude from Miami University with a double major in International Studies and Psychology, and a minor in German. Nicole wrote her International Studies thesis on how the War on Drugs impacted Latin America. After graduation, Nicole received a Fulbright English Teaching Assistantship in Luebeck, Germany. In the spring semester of 2018, Nicole represented the World Harris Institute at a hearing before the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in Bogota concerning gun violence in the United States. Nicole is a co-president and co-founder of the Criminal Law Society at Washington University, and her research interests include international human rights law, gun violence and trafficking in the Americas, and criminal law.
Zachary Smith, JD ’17, holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics from Wake Forest University. Before enrolling in law school at Washington University, he studied Venetian business economics with Wake Forest University’s Casa Artom program. In an effort to provide legal resources to further human rights around the globe, Zach interned at the Legal Resources Centre in Accra, Ghana in 2015. Although he is currently pursuing a career in intellectual property law, Zach is committed to volunteer work that furthers human rights causes around the world, specifically with regards to the LGBTQ community.
Ihor Stratan, LLM ’16, is a native Ukrainian, born in Rivne (Western Ukraine). In 2007, Ihor graduated from Rivne Institute of Kyiv University of Law of the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences and was conferred the LLB (summa cum laude). In the same year, he worked for two weeks as a legal assistant in Rivne Regional Office of the President of Ukraine. In 2008, he graduated from Kyiv University of Law of the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences and was conferred the Specialist’s Degree in Law (summa cum laude) and obtained the qualification of a Lawyer. From 2008 to 2015, he provided legal services in Ukraine, both to Ukrainian and to foreign clients. Since August 2015, he has been studying at Washington University School of Law in St. Louis in pursuit of his LLM in US Law, with a focus on corporate, contract, commercial, US, EU, and public and private international law.
RickPaul Singh Vander, JD ’17/LLM in Negotiation Dispute Resolution, graduated from the California State University, Fullerton with an MBA in Finance and a Bachelor’s in Business Management. In addition to focusing his coursework on International Law, Rickpaul is a member of the Crimes Against Humanity Research Team and the International Commercial Arbitration Moot Court Team. Furthermore, Rickpaul is publishing two papers in the international law field, presenting one of them at the “Business Ethics and Corruption in the Globalized World” conference in Delhi, India in April 2016. Last summer he interned at Xero, a software-tech firm in San Francisco and he is pursuing a career in International Business Law.
Teresa Yao, JD ’17, holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy-Neuroscience-Psychology from Washington University. Previously, she has worked at TrustLaw, the legal arm of the Thomson Reuters Foundation, where she connected international non-profits and social enterprises with free legal assistance from leading law firms in global jurisdictions. She is currently a staff editor of the Washington University Law Review. Teresa’s interests are in advocating for elderly rights, particularly in legal protections for those afflicted with dementia.
Olivia Youn, JD ’19, graduated from University of California, Davis with a degree in Communication. Before law school, she worked in family law as a legal assistant and interned with a currency organization in Davis, California to assist small businesses. She is currently an executive board member of Washington University School of Law’s Public Service Advisory Board (PSAB) and a staff editor for the Journal of Law and Policy. She is interested in learning languages, and hopes to work in community development in the future.
Lei (Iris) Yu, LLM ‘17 in Negotiation and Dispute Resolution, is originally from China. She holds an MBA from Poitier University in France and a Bachelor of Laws (L.L.B.) in China. Before coming to the United States, she practiced law for more than 10 years as an in-house legal counsel in the commercial banking sector with Bank of China and Standard Chartered Bank. She has traveled extensively as a backpacker and explored Europe, Africa, North, South, and Central America, Asia and Oceania. While at WashU Law, she worked on fair housing issues with the St. Louis Metropolitan Equal Housing & Opportunity Council and worked as a mediator with the Better Business Bureau. She also embraced volunteer opportunities, volunteering for the 2016 Presidential Debate held at WashU, the American Society of International Law’s 2017 Annual Meeting in DC, the National Bar Assocation’s 2016 Convention in St. Louis, Baobab People, and the SSM Health Cardinal Glennon Children’s Hospital Foundation in St. Louis. She is interested in using her commercial legal experience to work with internationally-focused NGOs in the future.